i dug a new pond in the late spring and im wondering if someone can advise on any thing i need to do with it over the winter? it doesnt have any fish, just a few marginal plants around and a water lilly (that didnt do anything this year, but im assured that will do next!). if it makes any dfference, it is in a sheltered spot and we do ususllay get quite hard frosts
Unless your pond is very shallow it’s not likely to freeze solid so the water in a healthy ecosystem will usually retain sufficient oxygen to keep pond life such as frogs, newts and insects alive. Goldfish, koi and amphibians are actually pretty resistant to low oxygen levels. Creating a hole in the ice actually doesn’t seem to make any difference to oxygen levels.
It is the plants in your pond that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. Photosynthesis needs light so if your pond collects snow, be sure to brush it off (but be careful not to step on the ice in case you break through). If your pond isn’t carefully maintained and you keep too many fish in it, the oxygen levels can get depleted.
This is because sediment and leaves that collect in the pond will encourage decomposers, and these, as well as your fish, use up oxygen during respiration. To get more oxygen into the pond you need to stir the water up so that deoxygenated water comes into contact with the air – this will need a pump or a fountain.